EFFECTS OF CLIMATE ON THE ARCHITECTURAL AND URBAN DESIGN OF TRIPOLI
Tripoli is a city of a Mediterranean Sea climate; this has contributed with some social and religious factors to affect the architectural and urban design, which all originally has come from the Islamic content. This study argues the climatic features of Tripoli in order to show the ways followed by the Libyan Muslim architect. In other words, these ways were used to adapt with the climate and create the demanding architectural treatments, which have served the building units. This is considered as a study case that can discuss the possibility of the climatic reflection on the walls. That is to say, the walls´ thickness, the type of the used substance in building, the substance´s properties, the type of roof used in covering the building units and the architectural design of the building as treatments achieved professionally by the architect in decreasing the heat in summer and increasing the heat in winter through the mass block. Additionally, the researchers have stated that Tripoli´s building design respected the privacy of the inhabitants and their isolation from the world outside their buildings. That is because they wanted to have their own cold spaces inside which were rich of light, air and shadow. As a result of the aforementioned considerations, the architectural buildings contained the uncovered space and the broken entrance to keep the privacy from the passengers and to protect the inhabitants from wind and sand. These were regarded as final solutions for the architectural and climatic problem. Further, this study illustrates the active role of using the planning including the architectural formations and the treatments of motion path. That is according to their width, their length, their form, their guidance and their direction change in order to make shadow and isolate the front of buildings. This also contributed to give the streets the northern wind which in turn helped to keep the air moving as long as possible to tone down the climatic influences. Moreover, the planning aimed to show its turn through analytical, architectural and documentary survey for realistic examples in the archeological registrar of the potential city treatments. These architectural elements were important in making the sustainable architecture in respect to the environment and human relaxation requirements. Finally, the researchers measured the following factors temperatures, wind, rain, and ratio humidity for variety of spaces in the city. That was followed by qualitative and quantitative statistical analysis supported by graphs
Keywords: Effects of Climate; Urban Design; Architectura Design.