Year:2024   Volume: 6   Issue: 2   Area:

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Bahman Salih MOHAMMAD

THE SCIENCE OF SPEECH IN THE ISLAMIC EAST: NISHAPUR AS A MODEL OF THEOLOGICAL AND LINGUISTIC INNOVATION IN THE FOURTH CENTURY AH

This research provides a concise exploration of “Islamic theology” in Nishapur. The city’s profound impact on Islamic civilization has led it to be recognized as one of the three most influential cities of its time. That is why this study, aims to encompass all the cities, districts, and villages of Nishapur that contributed to the development and prominence of theology through the efforts of its scholars, educational institutions, and cultural centers. Following the Islamic conquest of Nishapur in the 31st year after Hijra (AH), during the time of Caliph Uthman bin Affan, the people of Nishapur embraced Islam peacefully. Subsequently, they actively engaged in scientific pursuits across various fields, including both Experimental and Religious Sciences. However, the share of Experimental sciences, particularly the science of theology, did not attain the same prominence as Religious sciences, i.e. those sciences that focused solely on Islamic jurisprudence. This disparity may be attributed to Nishapur’s, in deed all other Islamic countries at that time, intense emphasis on religious sciences, which often overshadowed other areas of inquiry. Notably, religious sciences, especially those related to the Qur’an and Sunnah, were regarded as the most sublime and beneficial among all disciplines. Nishapur, however, played a pivotal role in the development of Theology as a science. The city established specialized schools, like that of Abi Ishaq Al-Esfrayini (418 AH), which nurtured a community of scholars. These institutions became a sought-after destination for those seeking this unique form of knowledge. In this research, we delve into this aspect of Nishapur, employing a descriptive methodology and relying on analysis and deduction.Our investigation draws upon several key references and research works, including: • “Tabaqat Al-Fuqaha” by Abi Eshaq Al-Sirazi (476 AH) • “Ta’rifat” by Ali bin Muhammad Al-Jirjani (816 AH) • “Al-Ghuniah fi Usul Al-Din” by Abi Saeed Al-Nishapoury (478 AH) • “An Introduction to the Arabic Scientific Movements in the Islamic East” by Dr. Tariq Fathi Sultan and others.

Keywords: Islamic Theology, The Science of Speech, The Islamic East, Nishapur

http://dx.doi.org/10.47832/2717-8293.28.17


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