MAJOR CULTURAL FACTORS AFFECTING MODERN TUNISIAN LITERATURE
Tunisia, which was occupied by France in 1881, gained its independence in 1956. For this reason, modern Tunisian literature has been delayed to reach an artistic form. Various developments were necessary for modernization to be experienced in Tunisia, just like in other Arab countries. First of all, there had to be an awareness and awakening movement that would save the people from the oppression and cruelty of the French. As a matter of fact, it is possible to encounter this awakening, which we can call the "Islah" movement, in the works of literary figures. Schools such as Zaytouna University, The Sadiki College and Khaldounia Madrasa were established for the development of the country culturally. The purpose of these schools is to provide students with a Western-style education as well as religious education. In this regard, The Sadiki College and Haldûniye Madrasa have played a complementary role for the religious education given at Zaytouna University. In addition, al-Râ´id al-Tûnisî, al-Hâdhira, al-Sa`âde al-`Uzmâ ve al-`Âlam al-Adabi etc. established in the country. Publications have a very important role in delivering the produced literary products to the public and in establishing modern Tunisian literature. "Jama´at taht al-Sur" which was located in the capital Tunisia in the 1930s and 1940s, was a place where the literary figures and artists of the period came together. This place also constitutes an important part of the literature in terms of laying the foundations of modern Tunisian literature. Finally 20th century writers such as Abu´l-Qâsım al-Shabbî, Ali Douagi and Mahmoud al-Mas`adi, who were among the names that left their mark on Tunisian literature in the century, were among the key names of literature related to the legacy they passed on to Tunisian literature and to the next generations. In this study, it will be attempted to briefly give a place to the main objectives that have influenced the establishment of modern Tunisian literature, which has an important place in Arabic literature
Keywords: Modern Tunisian Literature, Journalism, North Africa.