LITERATURE AND CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT IN BEYRUT IN THE 19TH CENTURY
Throughout history, Beirut has been the habitat of different religions and nations. The people of various nations are made up of Christians and Muslims. Today, it is seen that languages such as Arabic, French and English are among the most spoken languages in Lebanon, where Beirut is located. Looking at Beirut in the 19th century, it was seen that colonial powers such as Britain and France were a conflict area, and at the same time it was one of the centers of Arab nationalism thought against the Ottoman Empire. During the occupation of Mehmet Ali Pasha, missionary schools were allowed to open, as well as cities such as Zahle, Damascus and Aleppo, Jesuit schools were opened in Beirut. With the opening of American Protestant schools, the influence of the relevant schools in the emergence and development of the idea of Arab nationalism is inevitable. Especially in Beirut, it would be appropriate to state that the aim of using languages such as French and English instead of Arabic education in missionary schools is to instill Western culture and to attract students to Christianity. The students of the Syrian Protestant College, who constituted the original of the American University of Beirut, worked against the Ottoman Empire within the society they established and aimed to establish an independent secular Arab state. Beirut comes to the fore especially in areas such as poetry and theater before the "Nahda" movement that started in Egypt during the reign of Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Pasha with Napoleon's invasion of Egypt. The advances that paved the way for the development of modern literature in Beirut before Egypt will find a place in the field of literature later. In this study, it is aimed to present information on literary and cultural activities that took place in Beirut and emphasize the importance of Beirut in modern Arabic literature in the 19th century.
Keywords: Beirut, Lebanon, Modern Arabic Literature.