A COMPARISON BETWEEN THE CANAANITE AND SAWIAN CIVILIZATIONS
The planning and construction of ancient dwellings are the most attractive things, as they are considered a picturesque civilization that one can experience. This demonstrates the ancient heritage of these nations who worked and are among the historical origins of the archaeological world. The different stages are basic elements of the study of archaeological science. They give us approximately the true images of the history of ancient cities such as the period and manner of their constitution, as well as those of the materials with which they were built. In this context, a similarity appears in the contribution of the two heritages of the Sao and the canon in many aspects such as cultural and industrial. The work thus appears in both and the researcher encounters certain problems which make them tired of approaching in order to highlight their objective in the context of origins and references. The process of creating cities, temples, forts and walls on the outskirts of everything on the four cardinal points is intended for protection against attacks from external enemies, but the recognition of the Sao and Canonical cities is also that of the existence of small autonomous towns independent of each other; each having its own way of managing itself, without external intervention. The Phoenician peoples discovered trade through their navigation of the oceans in a very ancient era due to the small area of their cultivable land. In the meantime, the Sao people were preoccupied with agriculture and the manufacture of metals and pottery based on fired ceramics and clay without commercializing it. Thus, the Sao people and civilization is called The civilization of pottery (clay). Both civilizations are represented by the mode of burial of their dead in rough pottery jars not showing the facial features in their entirety, but orienting the face towards the sun. Thus, alluding to the power of the sun, they make human sacrifices to repel epidemics and disasters, whether internal or external. This practice shows their belief in resurrection after death, hence the burial of their dead with all the material belonging to and having served the deceased before their death. The Canaanite civilization arrived in Chad from different points; and different palpable evidence proves its existence in certain regions and zones of Chad, particularly Sahelian including those of Abéché, Arada and its surroundings like the effect of embers. The Sao people have mastered the technique of heating metals and the high temperature that lead to the melting of iron, their specialty. The word Sao is of Amharic origin and means “Human”. This people experienced unrest at the time of the ancient empire of 3500-2000 BC, having motivated the people to obtain privileges long reserved for the pharaohs. Likewise, in the middle dynasty of 2000 -1580 B.C., Pharaoh Amen Haout I from the south led wars against the Amalike Arab tribes coming from Asia and expelled them in 1700 B.C. During these invasions and upheavals, the Amalike tribes were able to invade Egypt and establish Dynasties ranging from the XIVth to the XVIIth. Other views revealed that the Egyptians attempted to penetrate deep into the African continent along the Nile to the Fourth Cataract. They would also have diverted access and incursion towards the Lake Chad Basin through the ancient valleys on the left bank of the Nile.
Keywords: The Canaanite and Sawian Civilizations, Sao, So.