WOMEN IN OTTOMAN THOUGHT
The Ottoman Empire lived through a period of weakness and disintegration after the wars of the Russian state and the Balkans, and the military and political weakness that afflicted it as a result of its weak economic and social capabilities, The last period of the nineteenth century after the organizations era (1839 - 1861 AD) is considered insufficient in reforming the state in all areas. A new stage in the history of the Ottoman Empire began, which is the era of Westernization, the introduction of European ideas and the attacking of extremist ideas in religion, And the Ottoman woman had a clear role at that stage in the history of the Ottoman Empire. The period of Sultan Abdul Hamid II (1876 - 1908 AD) is considered the period of the introduction of European ideas, the demand for the emancipation of women, the lifting of the veil, and the imposition of modern education according to new foundations, after it was through the madrassas. Women appeared who had an effective role in the Ottoman Empire, and they left a clear imprint of the era of enlightenment in the state, and the federations had an effective role in spreading the associations and cultural clubs to enter Western ideas at the time. The importance of the research stems from the fact that it represents an important stage in the history of the Ottoman Empire in general, and women and their intellectual role in particular. The most important books used in the research are Nadia Yassin Abd [The Federalists], Mary Miles Patrick [Sultans sons of Othman], Magda Makhlouf [The Harem in the Ottoman Era], MA thesis, Arab and foreign books, magazines... etc. The research is divided into: an introduction, four sections, and a conclusion: •The first topic: the beginnings of modernization of the Ottoman woman. •The second topic: social life in the Sultani Palace. •The third topic: Damascene women in Ottoman thought. •The fourth topic: Iraqi women in Ottoman thought.
Keywords: Woman, Thought, Ottoman, History.