Year:2022   Volume: 4   Issue: 2   Area: Woman Research

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Nawal Zghair ADHAB


The Ottoman Empire lived through a period of weakness ‎and disintegration after the wars of the Russian state and the ‎Balkans, and the military and political weakness that afflicted it ‎as a result of its weak economic and social capabilities‏,‏‎ The last ‎period of the nineteenth century after the organizations era ‎‎(1839 - 1861 AD) is considered insufficient in reforming the state ‎in all areas. A new stage in the history of the Ottoman Empire ‎began, which is the era of Westernization, the introduction of ‎European ideas and the attacking of extremist ideas in religion, ‎And the Ottoman woman had a clear role at that stage in the ‎history of the Ottoman Empire.‎ The period of Sultan Abdul Hamid II (1876 - 1908 AD) is ‎considered the period of the introduction of European ideas, the ‎demand for the emancipation of women, the lifting of the veil, ‎and the imposition of modern education according to new ‎foundations, after it was through the madrassas.‎ Women appeared who had an effective role in the ‎Ottoman Empire, and they left a clear imprint of the era of ‎enlightenment in the state, and the federations had an effective ‎role in spreading the associations and cultural clubs to enter ‎Western ideas at the time.‎ The importance of the research stems from the fact that it ‎represents an important stage in the history of the Ottoman ‎Empire in general, and women and their intellectual role in ‎particular.‎ The most important books used in the research are Nadia ‎Yassin Abd [The Federalists], Mary Miles Patrick [Sultans sons of ‎Othman], Magda Makhlouf [The Harem in the Ottoman Era], ‎MA thesis, Arab and foreign books, magazines... etc.‎ The research is divided into: an introduction, four sections, ‎and a conclusion:‎ •The first topic: the beginnings of modernization of the ‎Ottoman woman.‎ •The second topic: social life in the Sultani Palace.‎ •The third topic: Damascene women in Ottoman thought.‎ •The fourth topic: Iraqi women in Ottoman thought.‎

Keywords: Woman, Thought, Ottoman, History.