THE POSITION OF MODERN ARABIC POETRY FROM THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE BETWEEN 1875-1925
The last years of the Ottoman Empire were filled with turmoil, disagreements, and conflicts, and many internal and external endeavors. To exhaust it, and eliminate it, especially in the era of Sultan Abdul Hamid, who differed opinions about his policy of ruling. Some of them see in him the tyrannical sultan, the oppressor who sought to silence and stifle freedoms, and some of them see him as an example of the righteous ruler who sought reform and preserving the unity of the Islamic nation, but the plots were very big, and therefore he was unable to prevent him from doing that. His ruling was to isolate him and install someone else, for he is the Sultan who did not sell Palestine to the Jews, and did not order the army to clash with the forces that marched from Silanik to isolate him, so he kept the blood of Muslims from being looted and prevented fighting between brothers. Modern Arab poetry was neither oblivious nor far from these events, most of which were mirrored by many poets in their poetry, such as the poet Ahmad Shawqi, Hafiz Ibrahim, Muhammad Abdul Muttalib, Elijah Abi Madi, Muhammad al-Eid Al-Khalifa, and none of them were among them. The literature of the diaspora has had a share in depicting the events of this period with the variation in opinions and positions, especially that the winds of nationalism began to blow forcefully over the region through external movement, and it was more than an Arab region (state) such as Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, and Egypt emerged from the Ottoman rule and became the Ottoman Empire. western. Thus, Arabic poetry was a mirror that lived through reality, and reflected it. And these poems, especially those with a negative direction, had a great role in deepening the gap between the Turks and Arabs after the First World War until now. This study aims to clarify the position of modern Arabic poetry on the Ottoman state, whether negative or positive, based on the opinion of more than one Arab poet, a solution, a prominent figure who lived in that period and lived closely with it. The importance of the research is evident in its topic and its goal, especially in this difficult period in which the cunning work to drive the wedges of division between Arabs and Turks, as they did in the late Ottoman era. The study relies on methods of description and analysis, using history if needed, especially the notes of Sultan Abdul Hamid that he wrote with his own hand.
Keywords: poetry, Arabic, Turkey, Ottoman, modern