GENERAL THEORIES AND SPECIAL THEORIES IN TEACHING LANGUAGE TO NON-NATIVE SPEAKERS
The field of teaching language for non-native speakers is a rich field that has been addressed by various theories that tried to explain the process of acquiring a second language, as some of them pay great attention to the innate characteristics of the learner, and others focus on the role that the environment plays, especially in terms of providing contact with those who modify their language and patterns of interaction to suit the needs of the language learner, while other theories focus on the learner´s participation in the social contexts, or the so-called immersion in the target language environment, and the importance of research is highlighted in uncovering the mechanisms and curricula that these theories have adopted in order to achieve meaningful and distinct learning. The research aims to address this topic, trying to delve into the concepts and procedures of each theory separately in an attempt to clarify and present it to the Arab reader and student in an accessible and understandable form. We will try to rely in this study on a research plan that includes two main topics: A first topic, which we will devote to general theories in teaching language to non-native speakers; That is, theories that dealt with linguistic acquisition in general, whether related to the first or second language, and includes three main theories; They are the structural behavioral theory, the innate or Universal Grammar theory, and the functional theory. As for the second topic, we will devote it to the special theories, which are theories that dealt exclusively with teaching the language to non-native speakers, and it includes eight basic hypothesis. They are the Monitor hypothesis, the interaction hypothesis, the contrastive analysis hypothesis, the creative construction hypothesis, the fundamental difference hypothesis, Noticing hypothesis, the projection hypothesis, the competition model.In order to delve into this topic, we raise the following problems: How did cognitive theorizing for teaching a language to non-speakers of it contributed to addressing the difficulties and mistakes faced by the second language learner? How did these theories address the issue of second language teaching and acquisition?
Keywords: General Theories, Special Theories, Teaching Language to Non-Native Speakers, Linguistic Mistakes, Second Language Acquisition.