Year:2023   Volume: 5   Issue: 2   Area:

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Ilham Mahmoud AL-JADER, Israa Mohammed‏ KAREEM


The fifteenth century for Europe represents the beginning of the modern ‎era, and it is at the same time for Africa the era in which the continent ‎lost its independence, and became plundered by the European powers, ‎especially Britain، which contributed to the movement of geographical ‎discoveries، which is one of the most important stations in the history of ‎Africa during this era, as a precursor to European colonialism in general ‎and the British in particular. The topic has a special importance because ‎the European countries during this period showed the factors of the ‎colonial movement represented by the industrial revolution، the ‎imbalance between the West and the East, the growth of nationalism, ‎demographic pressures and internal conditions in Europe، economic ‎greed, strategic motives, the weakness of non-European powers, the call ‎to embrace Christian religion, geographical discoveries and their role in ‎exploiting the continent and then occupying it As for the research ‎problem, it is represented by the following question: Did the scouting ‎movement provide a great service to Britain for the colonization of ‎Africa? Did the information sent by the explorers, including David ‎Livingstone, help Britain extend its political influence and economic ‎exploitation of the continent? Did the geographical discoveries open ‎Africa to the missionaries? In order to answer these questions, the ‎research was divided into an introduction, two sections, and a ‎conclusion that included the most prominent findings of the study.‎ ‎The first topic entitled (David Livingston... birth and upbringing 1813-‎‎1840) was devoted. It contained the second topic entitled (David ‎Livingstone's scout trips in Africa 1841-1873). The research required ‎relying on the inductive historical scientific method to clarify past ‎historical events and facts dating back to the nineteenth century, based ‎on several sources that will be mentioned among the folds of the ‎research

Keywords: David Livingston, Expeditions, Africa‎.