CONSTİTUTİONAL SYSTEMS, ATHENS AND SPARTA, ADMİNİSTRATİVE SYSTEM.
This research studies the development of constitutional systems among the Greeks in the cities of Athens and Sparta, in terms of the political and administrative system from the year 800 to 300 BC, that is, since the emergence of the first stages of the history of the Athenian constitution in the monarchy era, through the aristocratic and oligarchic regimes and the rule of tyrants, to the democratic system in Athens. Whereas every Greek city had its own political system that distinguishes it from others, which the nature of the terrain of their country contributed the greatest contribution to, as well as the idea of self-sufficiency for each Greek city, and the boldness of Greek thought. Rather, they took their position in the kingdom of thought and had the courage to research and ask questions to themselves and sought to perceive the universe in the light of reason. Therefore, a political system appeared in every city known as the city-state system. Thus, the Greek civilization provided for the development of political thought unless other human civilizations provided it. What the Greek philosophers presented in political thought during the fifth and fourth centuries BC still represents the basis on which modern political systems were built, and the research aims to To reveal the importance of the geography of the land of the Greeks, and its impact on their civilization, and to highlight the role of Greek philosophers in matters related to the organization of the state and government, and to trace the development of constitutional systems among the Greeks from the monarchy era to the democratic system in Athens, and to identify the reasons for the stagnation of political life in Sparta under the monarchy. The importance of study and research in this subject is due to the fact that it clarifies the opinions and ideas of the Greek philosophers on constitutional systems, and thus it is an attempt to add even a small part to the history of the constitutional systems of the Greeks.
Keywords: Constitutional Systems, Athens and Sparta, Administrative System.