ARGENTINE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 1812-1850
Argentina is located in the continent of South America and it is considered the eighth largest country in the world in terms of an area of 2780,400 square kilometers. The city of Buenos Aires is the official capital of the country. The first European explorers reached it in 1516 were the Spanish who occupied most of South America. In opposition to them, Simon Bolivar and Jose San de Martín appeared, who imagined that the homeland would one day be born, free of Spanish intervention. The personality of Jose San Martin represented the pillar of independence in Latin America because he led the independence movement for three countries: Argentina, Peru, and Chile, in which he proved that he had the greatest role in the independence of these countries. The research dealt with three sections. The first topic included the naming of Argentina and its indigenous people, geographical explorations and the Spanish colonization of Argentina. The second topic focused on the personality of Jose San Martin because of its paramount importance in supporting the liberation movements in Argentina, his birth and his military upbringing. As for the progress of liberation movements and the emergence of the Argentine Republic was Among the third topic. The researcher concluded that the country of Argentina, which was called in Latin the country of silver, is inhabited by many ancient civilizations, including the Indians, the Mayan peoples and the people of Diaguita.San Martín benefited from his military and leadership experience, which he had accumulated in the leadership of the Andean Army to liberate Chile and then Peru. San Martín's victory in Chile was not to push him to invade, but he ceded to his friend Ohanes to lead Chile and harnessed all his energy to complete the liberation of Peru, the last stronghold of the Spaniards. San Martín cooperated with his friend Simon Bolivar to complete the liberation of Peru and offered him to be a soldier under his command. Martín's liberation of all the lands occupied by the Spaniards. After the liberation of Peru, San Martín did not cling to power, although he described himself as the protector of Peru, so after he sensed that there was opposition among the patriots to him, he quickly resigned, and left for Argentina, then to Chile, and after the death of his wife in 1823, he took his only daughter to France to spend the rest of his life In, He died in August 17, 1850.
Keywords: Argentina, War of Independence.