A READING OF THE FEATURES OF THE ALMOHAD POLITICAL PROJECT AND THE EXPERIENCE OF MOVING FROM THE CONCEPT OF THE GROUP TO THE CONCEPT OF THE STATE
Although the Arab region and the Islamic world witnessed a number of Islamic political experiences that played a prominent role in the historical paths of this vast geography, the Almohad political experience remains the most important distinguished political projects that emerged in the Islamic Maghreb region, as it played an active role in the map of balances at the regional and international levels. This experiment was launched as a religious reform movement led by Muhammad bin Tumart, who believed that a serious political project could not be established in the region without launching a process of broad religious reform due to a reality that was overshadowed by ignorance of religion, and in which myths and deviations spread. Indeed, Ibn Tumart was able to lay the foundations for this reform movement, to later develop and turn into a political movement, which was then able, thanks to Abdel-Moumen bin Ali, to overthrow the Almoravid state and to transfer the Almohad political project from the narrow concept of the group to the broad concept of the state. Therefore, regardless of the accusations that Ibn Tumart was accused of regarding his claim of Mahdism and the fabrication of false prophetic hadiths, the experience of his movement remains a different one, worthy of study and standing on its most important intellectual and political characteristics and advantages. The Almohad political project was a strategic choice that affected the nature of balances and the geopolitical and strategic map of the Islamic West region, which was characterized by intertwining and overlapping during the medieval period. From this logic, we will, in this research, study the political project from the foundation stage in the era of Ibn Tumart to the date of the death of his successor, Abd al-Mumin ibn Ali in the year 558 AH. We will discuss this research in three main topics: First, the formation of the Almohad political project and the features of the first founding phase / secondly the death of Ibn Tumart and the features of the second founding phase with Abdul Mumin bin Ali / Thirdly, the end of the Almoravids and the third founding phase of the Almohad project in the era of the believer.
Keywords: Almohads, Ibn Tumart, Al-Mahdi, Abdul-Mumin, The Group, The State, Al-Mourabitoun, Balances.